Learning Disability

Learning disability is a general term that describes specific kinds of learning problems. A learning disability can cause a person to have trouble learning and using certain skills. The skills most often affected are: reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and doing math.




  • Dyslexia


A language-based disability in which the child has trouble understanding written words. It may also be referred to as reading disability or reading disorder.


Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulty in learning to read in spite of average or above average intelligence and regular exposure to reading instruction. Often children with dyslexia also have difficulties in areas of speed of processing, short term memory, organization, sequencing, and spoken language and motor skills. They typically have trouble making the connection between the sound and the corresponding letter and difficulty blending those sounds to form words. If it takes too long to sound out the word, then the child will have a hard time reading through sentences and understanding them. A child with dyslexia often forgets the word and its meaning in the larger context of the sentence or paragraph.


  • Dyscalculia


Disability in which child may have difficulties in solving arithmetic problems and grasping mathematical concepts. Dyscalculia can also be characterized by having difficulties both with reading and with math’s. Children with dyscalculia often require a long time to carry out even simple arithmetic tasks. They might count on their fingers Until far into the upper grades.


Another problem area is linguistic difficulties which can manifest as difficulties in understanding numbers as concepts. Although often of high intelligence(IQ), such a child may have only a limited understanding of either numbers or even numerical symbols. Another form is planning difficulties that lead to the child's failure to carry out computations effectively. This child may have difficulties in following even an obvious strategy in solving arithmetic problems, losing track of where he/she is at, use complicated/time-taking strategies.


Dyscalculia may also be based on problems in visual perception that lead to difficulties at tasks involving logical thinking as well as in carrying out computations. This is often encountered in children who have difficulties in learning to read an ordinary clock and understand how the position of the hands is to be interpreted.


  • Dysgraphia


Dysgraphia is a writing disability in which the child finds it hard to form letters or write within a defined space. These children usually will have extremely poor handwriting.


Children with dysgraphia often have sequencing problems. What usually appears to be a perceptual problem (reversing letters/numbers, writing words backwards, writing letters out of order, and very sloppy handwriting) is often directly related to sequential/rational information processing difficulty. These children have difficulty with the sequence of letters and words as they write. As a result, they either need to slow down in order to write accurately, or experience difficulty with writing (spelling, punctuation, etc). And when they do slow down they often tend to lose the thoughts that they are trying to write about.




A detailed case history: It is important to collect detailed information regarding the child's birth, development, familial status, learning environment, medical history, and social-emotional adjustments. This is done by interviewing the parents/care-givers and often provides good insight into the issues underlying the learning problem.


Evaluation of the child: Information regarding the child's functional skills is gained by directly assessing him/her using informal and formal testing procedures. The child is tested in the areas of motor, speech-language, sensory, cognitive-perceptual and academic skills through various psychological tools of learning disabilities. . Psychological tests are often carried out to identify and rule out associated features such as Intelligence levels, ADHD/ADD, Behavioral, and Social-Emotional issues. Following to which standardized test for detecting learning disabilities in the child are carried out.




Special Education


Special Education focuses on the teaching children with academic, behavioral, health, or physical needs that cannot sufficiently be met using traditional educational programs or techniques.


Children who have special learning needs which arise out of sensory, intellectual, psychological or socio-cultural deficits often face difficulty in facing the challenges of mainstream education. They might need special inputs to perceive and comprehend the vast information presented to them using special instructional methodology and instructional material, learning aids and equipment specific to each individual's learning needs.

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